A1c: -at least two times a year in patients who are meeting treatment goals (and who have stable glycemic control). -quarterly in patients whose therapy has changed or who are not meeting glycemic goals -for microvascular disease prevention and macrovascular risk reduction, the A1C goal for nonpregnant adults in general is less than 7% -less stringent A1C goals (such as less than 8%) if -- a history of severe hypoglycemia -- limited life expectancy -- advanced microvascular or macrovascular complications -- extensive comorbid conditions Self-Management: -appropriate glucose monitoring to meet specific goals (such as fasting blood sugar less than 130 mg/dL) -medication adherence and self-adjustment as needed Lifestyle: -moderate weight loss (7% body weight) and regular physical activity (150 min/week) can reduce the risk of diabetes complications and improve glycemic control. -the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendation for dietary fiber is 14 g fiber/1,000 kcal -increase foods containing whole grains (one-half of grain intake). -saturated fat intake should be reduced -reduce intake of trans fat (lowers LDL cholesterol and increases HDL cholesterol) -monitor carbohydrate, whether by carbohydrate counting, exchanges, or experience-based estimation -perform at least 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (50–70% of maximum heart rate). -in the absence of contraindications, perform resistance training three times per week.
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